FFA (Free fatty acids) level
The condition of fruit prior to and during to its crushing, as well as the time between harvesting and crushing. The International Olive Oil Council (IOC) sets this standard at a level of 0.8% or less. Ours our commonly 0.2% or less.
PV (peroxide value)
This is the primary measurement of an oils’ rancidity (i.e. color, odor). Peroxides from when unsaturated free fatty acids react with oxygen, thus creating a series of chain reactions that generate volatile substances responsible for a typical musty/rancid oil smell. These reactions are accelerated by high temperature, light and oxygen exposure. A VERY LOW peroxide value is desirable for EVOO. The maximum measurement is 20.
DAGs (Diacylglycerols)
This is an overall standard with measurement from 1-100, the higher number the better. It is a German measurement that is not part of the IOC standard.
Polyphenols are water soluble antioxidant substances. Polyphenols determine the intensity of the oil (mild, medium, or robust), in terms of its desirable bitterness, pungency and level of antioxidants. A higher polyphenol count indicates a higher antioxidant level, therefore, more excellent health benefits. Olive oil is one of the few oils to contain considerable quantities of polyphenols. It is important to note that phenol levels decline as olive oil ages.